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Bread & Kaya 30: 2021 Cyberlaw circumstances within the restoration interval

  • Giant enhance of 40.6% in civil cyber circumstances between 2020 and 2021
  • Making use of right cheap man check based mostly on present growth of society

Bread & Kaya 30: 2021 Cyberlaw cases in the recovery period

When the Authorities of Malaysia introduced its 2nd lockdown in January 2021, our Courts rapidly opened digital doorways for distant hearings and trials.

In the present day, digital hearings and trials have now turn out to be a norm in Malaysia with many Courts, notably, the civil Courts, working as digital Courts.

The Chief Justice, in her speech on the event of the Opening of the Authorized 12 months 2022 entitled “Entry to Justice and the New Regular” stated that judges have adjusted properly to distant hearings at the very least within the context of civil circumstances, felony functions and felony appeals.

The screen-sharing expertise had assists them with regards to paperwork and the extent and nature of advocacy has improved regardless of whether or not counsel earlier than the decide is senior or junior.

Some felony courts have additionally moved to conduct issues just about. Previous to this, felony proceedings have been nonetheless completed bodily. S. 173(a) of the Legal Process Code supplies that when an accused seems or is introduced earlier than the Court docket a cost containing the particulars of the offence of which he’s accused shall be framed and browse and defined to him, and he shall be requested whether or not he’s responsible of the offence charged or claims to be tried until a dispensation is allowed. This could imply that the accused must be current in Court docket when the cost is learn to him.

It was not till the Classes Court docket case of Pendakwa Raya v Syamsul Zaman Bin Sukri (Pasir Mas Classes Court docket Legal Case No. DJ-62JSK-36-08/2021) {that a} cost was learn to the accused by way of distant communication expertise i.e. Zoom because the accused examined constructive for Covid-19 and couldn’t attend Court docket bodily. The discovered Classes Court docket Decide, Tuan Badrul Munir Mohd Hamdy relied on the provisions of s. 101 and s. 101B of the Subordinates Courts Act 1948 to train his discretion to have the matter performed by way of distant communication expertise.

The Malaysian Bar Council has additionally moved on with occasions. They’ve lastly lifted the ban on the usage of digital places of work by legal professionals and recognised that “a digital workplace provides advantages like comfort, flexibility, and value effectiveness”. To manage the usage of digital places of work, Chapter 7A entitled “Digital Places of work” was launched in August 2021 into the Guidelines and Rulings of the Bar Council. Primarily the brand new rulings require members to make sure the confidentiality of shopper’s data.



The Chief Justice in her speech additionally highlighted the rise of cyber defamation circumstances between 2020 and 2021. There was a big enhance of 40.6% of civil cyber circumstances between 2020 and 2021. The regular rise of such circumstances displays the higher use of social media and maybe the higher tendency to misuse it.

The rise in such circumstances additionally noticed Courts taking into elements reminiscent of present tendencies, growth and behavior of society in figuring out whether or not a press release is defamatory. Listed below are some attention-grabbing circumstances determined in 2021.

Bread & Kaya 30: 2021 Cyberlaw cases in the recovery period

  • Defamation by way of {photograph} and material of article

In Restoran Nasi Kandar Irfanah Sdn Bhd v The New Straits Time Press (Malaysia) Berhad & Anor Attraction [2021] 1 LNS 2465, the plaintiff claimed that, amongst others, a Fb posting containing {a photograph} of one of many plaintiffs seated on the different plaintiff’s restaurant to be defamatory though the publication was referring to 2 (2) different nasi kandar eating places. The Fb put up hyperlinks to an internet article entitled “2 well-known Penang Nasi Kandar eating places infested with rats, cockroaches, ordered shut”. The net article was not in reference to the plaintiff’s restaurant.

The Court docket of Attraction held that any one who clicked on the put up itself could be directed to the stated on-line article and would simply come to know of the identities of the stated 2 well-known nasi kandar eating places in Penang which plainly didn’t embody the second respondent. The Court docket of Attraction held that the Excessive Court docket had did not undertake and/or apply the right cheap man check based mostly on the present growth of society on the studying of stories reported on social media reminiscent of Fb when the discovered Excessive Court docket Decide concluded that the reader wouldn’t know of the eating places truly implicated just because there was no hyperlink under the offensive {photograph} stating “click on right here to learn extra.” Society at this time being extensively uncovered to social media, it’s impossible that the unusual reader wouldn’t be capable of entry the complete article by clicking on the related hyperlink which could be thought to be a easy course of on this time and age.

Bread & Kaya 30: 2021 Cyberlaw cases in the recovery period

  • Recognition of the use an asterisk (*) to right a typo by the Court docket

In Tan Sri David Chiu Tat-Cheong v Seema Elizabeth Soy [2021] 1 LNS 1162, the plaintiff initiated an motion for defamation in opposition to the defendant for allegedly publishing sure defamatory statements on a WhatsApp Group over the plaintiff’s household, firm and allegedly earlier convictions. The plaintiff is the founder and managing director of Malaysia Land Properties Sdn Bhd (also referred to as “Mayland”). Mayland is the developer of Waldorf & Windsor Towers Service Flats (“W&W”). The defendant however, was the proprietor of an condo unit at W&W and was concerned within the administration committee and sub-committee of W&W in numerous capacities.

In one of many impugned textual content, the plaintiff said, “The identical don (David Chiu) is the Founder and Chairman of Mayland!!!” however she later corrected the phrase “don” with the phrase “son” with an asterisk (*).  The plaintiff claims that these phrases meant that he’s a Don and is related to the criminals or underworld.

The Excessive Court docket accepted that the usage of asterisk (*) to right a phrase is a typical manner of correcting a misspelling on WhatsApp. Notably, on this case, the letters “s” and “d” are subsequent to one another on the cell phone keypad used within the WhatsApp software. Furthermore, the correction was completed within the house of a minute.


Extension of defence of Certified Privilege for publications on WhatsApp teams

The Excessive Court docket in Tan Sri David Chiu Tat-Cheong v Seema Elizabeth Soy [2021] 1 LNS 1162 additionally prolonged the defence of certified privilege, which is a defence for defamation, to an individual who revealed alleged defamatory assertion to members of a WhatsApp group. Certified privilege is afforded to those that make defamatory statements within the discharge of some public or non-public responsibility, whether or not authorized or ethical, or within the conduct of their very own affairs, in issues the place their curiosity is anxious. However provided that the publication derived from proper and trustworthy motives.

The impugned textual content was communicated in a closed and personal WhatsApp chat group setting constituted by individuals who have been within the welfare of W&W. It was transmitted in step with the aim for existence of the WhatsApp Group. The defendant despatched the textual content in pursuance of her duties and in her capability as a member of the administration committee of W&W. As a way to increase consciousness of the varied authorized disputes through which Mayland and its associated entities have been the counter-parties with opposing pursuits.


Legal responsibility of On-line Market Operators

These within the mental property safety trade should wait once more for the Court docket to resolve on whether or not a commerce mark proprietor can cease an internet market operators from permitting its retailers to listing merchandise bearing their commerce mark underneath the brand new Logos Act 2019.

An internet market operator was discovered to be responsible for commerce mark infringement underneath the previous Commerce Marks Act 1976 (now repealed and changed with the Logos Act 2019) (Nexgen Biopharma Analysis & Innovation SARL v Celcom Planet Sdn Bhd (Kuala Lumpur Excessive Court docket Go well with No. WA-22IP-3-01/2018). Sadly, there is no such thing as a grounds of judgment obtainable for this case.

On-line market operators typically take down counterfeit merchandise from their platforms upon receiving discover from the commerce mark proprietor. Nonetheless, in the case of unauthorised real merchandise (e.g. parallel imports or direct advertising and marketing merchandise which on-line gross sales are prohibited by the principal), the overall place by on-line market operators is that they won’t delist such merchandise.

Within the case of Deka Advertising Sdn Bhd v Shopee Cell Malaysia Sdn Bhd [2021] 10 CLJ 395, the plaintiff, being the commerce mark proprietor of the mark DEKA, sought to restrain Shopee from permitting and allowing resellers of DEKA merchandise from utilising Shopee to conduct enterprise involving the DEKA merchandise, together with the promoting, distribution, publication and supply on the market of the stated merchandise, with out the plaintiff’s licence, permission or authorisation.

In keeping with the plaintiff, solely unique distributors and authorised sellers appointed by the plaintiff are allowed to promote its merchandise. The plaintiff utilized for an order for abstract judgment in order that the matter could be disposed summarily with out going to trial.

Shopee however argued that, amongst others, there is no such thing as a legislation that prohibits the reselling of merchandise which were bought with out having to get prior consent or authorisation from the model proprietor, because the title of the products has handed to 3rd events, the plaintiff’s motion lies in opposition to the resellers and never Shopee and this problem can’t be resolved via a abstract judgment software, and Shopee merely supplies the platform enabling the third social gathering sellers to place their items on the market and for patrons to buy them.

The patrons will liaise with the sellers instantly, not with the Defendant. Thus, the defendant doesn’t promote, publish, promote, make provides of the DEKA merchandise listed within the Shopee platform on the market by these resellers. The defendant additionally utilized to have the matter disposed summarily underneath Order 14A and 33 of the Guidelines of Court docket 2012 by answering the next questions of law-

(a) Whether or not the plaintiff has the fitting in legislation to limit the resale of genuine merchandise bearing the “DEKA” mark (“Deka Merchandise”) on the defendant’s on-line market ( (“Platform”)?

(b) Whether or not the promoting, distributing, advertising and marketing and/or providing on the market of Deka Merchandise on the Platform offers rise to a reason for motion for trademark infringement in opposition to the individuals promoting, distributing, advertising and marketing and/or providing on the market Deka Merchandise on the Platform (“Resellers”)

(c) If the reply to (b) above is within the affirmative, whether or not the Resellers are liable to the Plaintiff for trademark infringement?

(d) If the reply to (c) above is within the affirmative, can claims for trademark infringement be made in opposition to the defendant by cause of the alleged promoting, distribution, advertising and marketing and/or providing on the market of Deka Merchandise by the Resellers on the Platform?

(e) If the reply to (d) above is within the affirmative, can findings of infringement be made in opposition to the defendant with out the Resellers being made events to the proceedings?

The Excessive Court docket dismissed each functions on the bottom that, amongst others, the issues needs to be adjudicated via a trial and never summarily.

In respect of the appliance for abstract judgment, the Excessive Court docket concluded that the next points are triable-

(i) that being an internet market platform, the defendant doesn’t perform distribution or retail advertising and marketing {of electrical} or family merchandise;

(ii) regardless of being the registered proprietor of the “DEKA” trademark, the plaintiff doesn’t have any proper to stop any vendor who trades the plaintiff’s merchandise by precisely describing the product by its model title;

(iii) nobody is prohibited from reselling the plaintiff’s merchandise as soon as these merchandise are bought and the title of the products handed to the stated vendor/reseller;

(iv) the plaintiff’s claims in opposition to the defendant as an alternative gave rise to considerations underneath the Competitors Act 2010;

(v) the third social gathering sellers utilizing the impugned Shopee platform are impartial with no contractual or enterprise associations with the defendant;

(vi) the defendant doesn’t promote, publish, promote or make provides for the sale of merchandise listed on its Shopee market; and

(vii) the plaintiff’s merchandise positioned on the market by the stated sellers on the defendant’s platform doesn’t in any method infringed the plaintiff’s DEKA trademark. Even when it does, the quarrels needs to be between the plaintiff, the resellers and the plaintiff’s so-called authorised sellers/unique distributors, fell squarely inside the which means of triable points.

As for defendant’s software underneath Order 14A and 33 of the Guidelines of Court docket 2012, the Excessive Court docket concluded that the questions raised by the defendants in its software concerned blended questions of details and legislation that could possibly be justly decided after this courtroom having the good thing about listening to proof of witnesses at a full trial.

Tomorrow: Enforceability of digital contracts and Reside streamers go to courtroom



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